Kroll, Alexandra and Pillukat, Mike H. and Hahn, Daniela and Schnekenburger, Jürgen (2009) Current in vitro methods in nanoparticle risk assessment: Limitations and challenges. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 72 (2). p. 370. ISSN 09396411
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.08.009
Nanoparticles are an emerging class of functional materials defined by size-dependent properties. Application fields range from medical imaging, new drug delivery technologies to various industrial products. Due to the expanding use of nanoparticles, the risk of human exposure rapidly increases and reliable toxicity test systems are urgently needed. Currently, nanoparticle cytotoxicity testing is based on in vitro methods established for hazard characterization of chemicals. However, evidence is accumulating that nanoparticles differ largely from these materials and may interfere with commonly used test systems. Here, we present an overview of current in vitro toxicity test methods for nanoparticle risk assessment and focus on their limitations resulting from specific nanoparticle properties. Nanoparticle features such as high adsorption capacity, hydrophobicity, surface charge, optical and magnetic properties, or catalytic activity may interfere with assay components or detection systems, which has to be considered in nanoparticle toxicity studies by characterization of specific particle properties and a careful test system validation. Future studies require well-characterized materials, the use of available reference materials and an extensive characterization of the applicability of the test methods employed. The resulting challenge for nanoparticle toxicity testing is the development of new standardized in vitro methods that cannot be affected by nanoparticle properties.
|Subjects:||Biomedical Science > Nanobiotechnology|
Risk > Environment, health and safety aspects of nanotechnology
|Deposited By:||M T V|
|Deposited On:||28 Apr 2010 10:29|
|Last Modified:||28 Apr 2010 10:29|
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