Nano Archive

Safety procedures of coagulation factors

Jorquera, J. I. (2007) Safety procedures of coagulation factors. HAEMOPHILIA, 13 (Suppl. 5). pp. 41-46. ISSN Online ISSN: 1365-2516

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Two main types of safety procedures must be applied to biological products, including plasma derivatives: (i) preventive procedures and (ii) elimination procedures. Prevention includes epidemiological control of donor populations; checks on each donor's health condition; analysis of each donation for the main pathogens using serological methods; additional analysis of all plasma for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the 131.9 virus, using nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). A 60 days or longer inventory hold of all plasma donations is applied, to allow additional time to discard previous donations from potential seroconverting or otherwise rejectable donors. Elimination procedures minimize the low residual risk of transmitting pathogens, including unknown or previously undetected ones. Since the introduction 20 years ago of solvent-detergent treatment, very effective against enveloped viruses (HIV, HBV, HCV, West Nile virus, SARS, avian influenza virus etc), there have been no known cases of transmission of this type of pathogens by products manufactured according to this procedure. Other inactivation procedures such as pasteurization, dry-heat or nanofiltration may prove equally effective. In addition, dry-heat treatment and nanofiltration are capable of effectively eliminating non-enveloped viruses (HAV, B19 virus). Recent studies show that the B19 virus is much more sensitive to heat (in lyophilized state or by pasteurization) and acid pH than previously thought. Although there is no evidence for the transmission of classic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) through blood or blood-products transfusion, four possible cases have been reported in the United Kingdom involving transmission by non-leukoreduced blood components of the agent that causes variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), a disease linked to the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) which took place in that country. However, there are no cases of human TSE (classic or variant) transmission by plasma-derived products. Analytical methods capable of detecting the vCJD agent in patients' brains (where high titres are found) and other tissues (such as the spleen, appendix and lymph nodes, where much lower concentrations are found) are unable to detect the agent in blood or plasma from patients with vCJD, even in the clinical phase of the disease. Experiments by Grifols and other groups show that the capacity of the production processes to eliminate vCJD agent models is many orders of magnitude greater than the maximum expected load of the agent. In this regard, the efficacy of precipitation, affinity chromatography, depth filtration and nanofiltration are particularly notable.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:coagulation factor concentrates; safety
Subjects:NanoSafety > Environment, health and safety aspects of nanotechnology
Biomedical Science > Nanomedicine
ID Code:601
Deposited By:M T V
Deposited On:10 Dec 2008 10:04
Last Modified:10 Dec 2008 10:04

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