Nano Archive

Formulation and stability of whitening VCO-in-water nano-cream

Al-Edresi, Sarmad and Baie, Saringat (2009) Formulation and stability of whitening VCO-in-water nano-cream. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 373 (1-2). 174 - 178.

Full text is not hosted in this archive but may be available via the Official URL, or by requesting a copy from the corresponding author.

Official URL:


Virgin coconut oil (VCO)-in-water, nano-emulsion in the form of cream stabilized by Emulium Kappa® as an emulsifier, was prepared by using the Emulsion Inversion Point method. A nano-emulsion with droplet size <300 nm was then obtained. VCO has recently become a more popular new material in the cosmetic industries. Emulium Kappa® is an ionic emulsifier that contains sodium stearoyl lactylate, the active whitening ingredient was Kojic Dipalmitate. Ostwald ripening is the main destabilizing factor for the nano-emulsion. This decline can be reduced by adding non-soluble oil, namely squalene, to the virgin coconut oil. We tested VCO:squalene in the ratios of 10:0, 9.8:0.2, 9.6:0.4, 9.4:0.6, 9.2:0.8, 9:1 and 8:2 and discovered that squalene's higher molecular weight (above critical molecular weight) resulted in low polarity and insolubility in the continuous phase. The continuous partitioning between the droplets results in the decline of Ostwald ripening. Furthermore, flocculation may occur due to the instability of nano-emulsion, especially for the preparations with little or no squalene at all. The stability of the nano-emulsion was evaluated by the electrophoretic properties of the emulsion droplets. The zeta potential values for the emulsion increased as the percentage of squalene oil increased.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Ostwald ripening; Squalene; Zeta-potential
Subjects:Biomedical Science > Nanomedicine
ID Code:5665
Deposited By:SPI
Deposited On:04 Aug 2009 11:02
Last Modified:04 Aug 2009 11:02

Repository Staff Only: item control page