Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A and Inman, Alfred O and Wang, Yunyu Y and Nemanich, Robert J (2005) Surfactant effects on carbon nanotube interactions with human keratinocytes. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine .
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Interactions of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) were studied with respect to the effect of surfactant on dispersion of MWCNT aggregates and cytotoxicity. Our earlier studies had shown that the unmodified MWCNTs were localized within the cytoplasmic vacuoles of HEKs and elicited an inflammatory response. However, MWCNTs in solution tend to aggregate and, therefore, cells are exposed to large MWCNT aggregates. The purpose of this study was to find a surfactant that prevents the formation of large aggregates of MWCNTs without being toxic to the HEKs. HEKs were exposed to serial dilutions (10% to 0.1%) of L61, L92, and F127 Pluronic and 20 or 60 Tween for 24 hours. HEK viability, proportional to surfactant concentration, ranged from 27.1% to 98.5% with Pluronic F127; viability with the other surfactants was less than 10%. Surfactants dispersed and reduced MWCNT aggregation in medium. MWCNTs at 0.4 mg/mL in 5% or 1% Pluronic F127 were incubated with HEKs and assayed for interleukin 8 (IL-8). MWCNTs were cytotoxic to HEKs independent of surfactant exposure. In contrast, MWCNT-induced IL-8 release was reduced when exposed to 1% or 5% Pluronic F127 ( P b .05). However, both MWCNTs and surfactant, alone or in combination, increased IL-8 release compared with control exposures at 12 and 24 hours. These results suggest that the surfactant-MWCNT interaction is more complex than simple dispersion alone and should be investigated to determine the mode of interaction.
|Subjects:||Risk > Environment, health and safety aspects of nanotechnology|
|Deposited By:||Prof Nancy Monteiro-Riviere|
|Deposited On:||02 Mar 2012 16:48|
|Last Modified:||02 Mar 2012 16:48|
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