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Effects of surfactants on microwave-assisted solid-state intercalation of poly(carbazole) in Bentonite

Riaz, Ufana and Ashraf, S. M. and Khan, Nisha (2011) Effects of surfactants on microwave-assisted solid-state intercalation of poly(carbazole) in Bentonite. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13 (12). pp. 6321-6331.

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Abstract

The present preliminary investigation reports, for the first time, the effects of typical cationic and anionic surfactants on the microwave-assisted solid-state intercalation and polymerization of carbazole (Cz) in the basal spacings of Bentonite. The intercalation of cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPCl), a cationic surfactant, and naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA), an anionic surfactant, in Bentonite was carried out at two loadings—25 and 50 wt%—using microwave irradiation. The in situ polymerization of Cz was successfully carried out into the surfactant-modified galleries of Bentonite. This was confirmed by Gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The intercalation of poly(carbazole) (PCz) was confirmed by FT-IR, UV–Visible, and XRD analyses. Although polymerization was carried out in the solid-state, the UV–Visible spectra revealed the doped state of PCz and the presence of a charge carrier tail. The XRD studies showed that the increase in the height of the galleries was higher in case of Bentonite/CPCl/PCz nanocomposites as compared to Bentonite/NSA/PCz nanocomposites. It also revealed different orientations of the two surfactants in the galleries of the clay. The average particle size of Bentonite/CPCl/PCz (1:0.25:0.25) and (1:0.5:0.5) nanocomposites was found to be in the range of 25–35 and 50–60 nm, respectively. The Bentonite/NSA/PCz (1:0.25:0.25) and (1:0.5:0.5) nanocomposites showed the average particle size in the range of 20–30 nm and 40–50 nm, respectively. The results revealed that both cationic and anionic surfactants strongly influenced the morphology of Bentonite/PCz nanocomposites. The difference in the mechanisms of solid-state intercalation of PCz in the presence of these surfactants has been proposed.

Item Type:Article
ID Code:11425
Deposited By:Prof. Alexey Ivanov
Deposited On:05 Jan 2012 09:29
Last Modified:05 Jan 2012 09:42

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